Historically, China has been a migrant sending source to developed countries such as the United States and Europe in search of jobs as well as new lives. In the past few decades, China has undergone huge changes in demography and economy. As one of the largest economic countries in the world, China is becoming a destination country for transnational migrants.
China Demographic Change in Millennium
The change of demography in China was reported by China’s 2010 census, the average annual population growth between 2000 and 2010 was 0.57 percent. Although the number of 60 plus aged people increased about 3 percent from 10.4 percent in 2000 to 13.3 percent in 2010, working aged population whose age between 15-54 declined from 0.95 percent in 2005 to 0.19 percent in 2010. What was worse, the continuous declining among people from 15 to 54 will lead to negative 0.23 percent in 2030. This declining means the China current surplus labor force will come to an end quickly by fast growing old generation.
China Economic Change in Millennium
Since the reformation of 1979, China has transformed from a planned system to a market oriented system. Nowadays, China has become the second largest economic country in the world after the United States. According to China Ministry of Commerce, in 2010, $106bn of foreign direct investment was attracted into China which increased 17.4% higher than that in 2009. Meanwhile, it was reported by the National Bureau of Statistics of China, China GDP grew on an average of 2.0 percent from 2011 to 2013, with a highest 2.5 percent in June of 2011. In the end, the continuing economic growth of China GDP expanded 2.20 percent in 2013.
Looking Forward: Is China toward a New Migration Transition?
It is likely, due to inner labor forces shortage and Chinese working age population shrinking, China government will absorb more migrant workers to fill the gap. What’s more, the rapid economic growth in China has truly emerged as a destination country for economic migration. Therefore, is that with a base population of 1.34 billion, China could come to dominate the global migration system?